Specific characteristics that increase the risk for non-union:
- Displacement greater than 1.5cm
- Anterior or posterior displacement of the fracture
- Lack of cortical apposition of the fracture ends
- Advanced age
- Female gender
- Butterfly segments (comminution)
In patients <12 years old almost all injuries are treated nonoperatively.
Plastic deformity of the clavicle should be treated the same as a complete fracture.