Specific characteristics that increase the risk for non-union:

  • Displacement greater than 1.5cm
  • Shortening
  • Anterior or posterior displacement of the fracture
  • Lack of cortical apposition of the fracture ends
  • Advanced age
  • Female gender
  • Butterfly segments (comminution)

In patients <12 years old almost all injuries are treated nonoperatively.
Plastic deformity of the clavicle should be treated the same as a complete fracture.